Perforation Là Gì


Perforation is a hole that develops through the wall of a toàn thân organ. This problem may occur in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or gallbladder.

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Perforation of an organ can be caused by a variety of factors. These include:

Cancer (all types)Gallbladder diseasePeptic ulcer diseaseBowel blockageChemotherapy agentsIncreased pressure in the esophagus caused by forceful vomiting Ingestion of caustic substancesCancer ( all types ) Gallbladder diseasePeptic ulcer diseaseBowel blockageChemotherapy agentsIncreased pressure in the esophagus caused by forceful vomiting Ingestion of caustic substancesIt may also be caused by surgery in the abdomen or procedures such as colonoscopy or upper endoscopy .Perforation of the intestine or other organs causes the contents lớn leak inlớn the abdomen. This causes a severe infection called peritonitis .Symptoms may include :Severe abdominal painChillsFeverNauseaVomitingShockSevere abdominal painChillsFeverNauseaVomitingShockX-rays of the chest or abdomen may show air in the abdominal cavity. This is called không tính phí air. It is a sign of a tear. If the esophagus is perforated miễn phí air can be seen in the mediastinum ( around the heart ) & in the chest .A CT scan of the abdomen often shows where the hole is located. The white blood cell count is often higher than normal .A procedure may help find the area of the perforation, such as an upper endoscopy ( EGD ) or a colonoscopy .Treatment most often involves emergency surgery to repair the hole .A drain from the abdomen or other organ may also be needed.A drain from the abdomen or other organ may also be needed .

In rare cases, people can be treated with antibiotics alone if the perforation has closed. This can be confirmed by a physical exam, blood tests, CT scan, and x-rays.

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Surgery is successful most of the time. However, the outcome will depkết thúc on how severe the perforation is, and for how long it was present before treatment. The presence of other illnesses can also affect how well a person will vì after treatment.

Even with surgery, infection is the most comtháng complication of the condition. Infections can be either inside the abdomen ( abdominal abscess or peritonitis ), or throughout the whole toàn thân body toàn thân. Body-wide infection is called sepsis. Sepsis can be very serious & can lead to death .Điện thoại tư vấn your health care provider if you have :Blood in your stoolChanges in bowel habitsFeverNauseaSevere abdominal painVomitingCall 911 right away if you or someone else have ingested a caustic substance.Blood in your stoolChanges in bowel habitsFeverNauseaSevere abdominal painVomitingcall 911 right away if you or someone else have sầu ingested a caustic substance .Gọi the local poison control center emergency number at 1-800 – 222 – 1222 if a person has ingested a caustic substance. This Hỗ trợ tư vấn number will let you talk to lớn experts in poisoning .DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you hotline for help .People will often have sầu a few days of pain before the intestinal perforation occurs. If you have pain in the abdomen, see your provider right away. Treatment is much simpler and safer when it is started before the perforation occurs .Matthews JB, Turaga K. Surgical peritonitis và other diseases of the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, và diaphragm. In : Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger và Fordtran ” s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11 th ed. Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier ; 2021 : chap 39 .Squires R, Carter SN, Postier RG. Adễ thương abdomen. In : Townskết thúc CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. đôi mươi th ed. Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier ; 2017 : chap 45 .

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Wagner JP, Chen DC, Barie PS, Hiatt JR. Peritonitis and intraabdominal infection. In: Vincent J-L, Abrasi mê E, Moore FA, Kochanek PM, Fink MP.., eds. Textbook of Critical Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 99.

Updated by : Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Aria – Jefferson Health Torresdale, Jefferson Digestive sầu Diseases Network, Philadelphia, PA. Đánh Giá provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve sầu, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, & the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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