Mainland china là gì

Whether it's a bluff or a genuine threat of invasion, the increase in Chinese military activity in Taiwan over the last few months has caused global concern.

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At the heart of the divide is that the Chinese government sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that will, eventually, be part of the country again.

Many Taiwanese people disagree. They feel they in effect have a separate nation - whether or not independence is ever officially declared.


Going back to the beginning - the first known settlers in Taiwan were Austronesian tribal people, who are thought to lớn have come from modern day southern China.

The island first appears in Chinese records in AD239, when china sent an expeditionary force lớn explore the area - a fact Beijing uses lớn back its territorial claim.

After a relatively brief spell as a Dutch colony (1624-1661), Taiwan was administered by China's Qing dynasty from 1683 to lớn 1895.


From the 17th Century, significant numbers of migrants started arriving from China, often fleeing turmoil or hardship. Most were Hoklo Chinese from Fujian (Fukien) province or Hakka Chinese, largely from Guangdong. The descendants of these two migrations are now by far the largest demographic groups on the island.

In 1895, nhật bản won the First Sino-Japanese War, & the Qing government had khổng lồ cede Taiwan khổng lồ Japan. After World War Two, nhật bản surrendered và relinquished control of territory it had taken from China. The Republic of china - one of the victors in the war - began ruling Taiwan with the consent of its allies, the US and UK.

But in the next few years a civil war broke out in China, and the then-leader Chiang Kai-shek's troops were beaten back by Mao Zedong's Communist armies.


Chiang and the remnants of his Kuomintang (KMT) government fled to lớn Taiwan in 1949. This group, referred lớn as Mainland Chinese and then making up 1.5m people, dominated Taiwan's politics for many years - even though they only tài khoản for 14% of the population.

Having inherited an effective dictatorship, facing resistance from local people resentful of authoritarian rule và under pressure from a growing democracy movement, Chiang's son, Chiang Ching-kuo, began allowing a process of democratisation. This eventually led lớn the election of the island's first non-KMT president, Chen Shui-bian, in 2000.


Relations between đài loan trung quốc and Taiwan started improving in the 1980s. đài loan trung quốc put forward a formula, known as "one country, two systems", under which Taiwan would be given significant autonomy if it accepted Chinese reunification.

This system was established in Hong Kong khổng lồ be used as something of a showcase to entice Taiwanese people back khổng lồ the mainland.

Taiwan rejected the offer, but it did relax rules on visits to and investment in China. In 1991, it also proclaimed the war with the People's Republic of đài loan trung quốc on the mainland to be over.

There were also limited talks between the two sides' unofficial representatives, though Beijing's insistence that Taiwan's Republic of china (ROC) government is illegitimate meant government-to-government meetings couldn't happen.


And in 2000, when Taiwan elected Chen Shui-bian as president, Beijing was alarmed. Mr Chen had openly backed "independence".

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Eight years later, in 2016, Taiwan's current president Tsai Ing-wen was elected. She leads the Democratic Progressive tiệc ngọt (DPP), which leans towards eventual official independence from China.

After Donald Trump won the năm nhâm thìn US election, Ms Tsai spoke to lớn him on the phone - a break with US policy set in 1979, when formal relations were cut. Despite the lack of formal relations, the US has an agreement to lớn supply Taiwan with defensive weapons & has stressed any attack by trung quốc would cause "grave concern".

Throughout 2018, đài loan trung quốc stepped up pressure on international companies, forcing them to danh sách Taiwan as a part of trung quốc on their websites và threatening khổng lồ block them for doing business in trung quốc if they failed to comply.

Ms Tsai won a second term in 2020. By that time Hong Kong had seen months of unrest, with protesters demonstrating against the mainland's increasing influence - a development many in Taiwan were watching closely.

Later that year, China's implementation of a national security law in Hong Kong was widely seen as yet another sign that Beijing was becoming more assertive in the region.

At the same time, the US has been intensifying its outreach to lớn Taiwan and reassuring Taipei of its continued support. Last September, Washington sent the highest-level state department official in decades to lớn visit the island.

Beijing strongly criticised the meeting, warning the US "not khổng lồ send any wrong signals to lớn 'Taiwan independence' elements khổng lồ avoid severe damage to China-US relations". During the controversial visit, china conducted a live-fire military exercise in the waterway that separates the island from the mainland.

This year, President Joe Biden's administration has said its commitment khổng lồ Taiwan is "rock solid".

In the first few days of Mr Biden's presidency, Taiwan reported a "large incursion" by Chinese warplanes over two days. Then on 12 April, the Taiwanese government said đài loan trung quốc flew the largest number of military jets into its air defence zone for a year.

In response, US Admiral John Aquilino, head of the Pentagon's Indo-Pacific command, warned that a Chinese invasion of Taiwan "is much closer khổng lồ us than most think".

China regards Taiwan as a breakaway province which it has vowed khổng lồ retake, by force if necessary. But Taiwan's leaders say it is clearly much more than a province, arguing that it is a sovereign state.

It has its own constitution, democratically-elected leaders, & about 300,000 active troops in its armed forces.

Chiang Kai-shek's Republic of trung quốc (ROC) government, which fled the mainland lớn Taiwan in 1949, at first claimed lớn represent the whole of China, which it intended to re-occupy. It held China's seat on the United Nations Security Council & was recognised by many Western nations as the only Chinese government.

But in 1971, the UN switched diplomatic recognition lớn Beijing và the ROC government was forced out. Since then the number of countries that recognise the ROC government diplomatically has fallen drastically khổng lồ about 15.

Given the huge divide between these two positions, most other countries seem happy khổng lồ accept the current ambiguity, whereby Taiwan has virtually all of the characteristics of an independent state, even if its legal status remains unclear.

While political progress has been slow, links between the two peoples và economies have grown sharply. Taiwanese companies have invested about $60bn (£40bn) in China, và up khổng lồ one million Taiwanese people now live there, many running Taiwanese factories.

Some Taiwanese people worry their economy is now dependent on China. Others believe that closer business ties make Chinese military action less likely, because of the cost to lớn China's own economy.

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Yet more & more people say they feel Taiwanese rather than Chinese. Tư vấn for the DPP increased at the January 2016 election - partly because of dissatisfaction with the KMT's handling of economic issues, & partly because of worries that President Ma's administration was making Taiwan too dependent on Beijing.